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Nafamostat is a synthetic serine protease inhibitor that is commonly formulated with hydrochloric acid due to its basic properties. It has been used in trials studying the prevention of Liver Transplantation and Postreperfusion Syndrome. The use of nafamostat in Asian countries is approved as an anticoagulant therapy for patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy due to acute kidney injury.
Used as an anticoagulant in patients with disseminative blood vessel coagulation, hemorrhagic lesions, and hemorrhagic tendencies. It prevents blood clot formation during extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.
Nafamostat is a fast-acting proteolytic inhibitor used during hemodialysis to prevent the proteolysis of fibrinogen into fibrin by competitively inhibiting several serine proteases including thrombin. It improves acute pancreatitis and prevents blood clot formation during extracorporeal circulation and has an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. A study suggets that nafamostat has a neuroprotective role during ischemia-induced brain injury from antithrombin activity.
Mechanism of action
Nafamostat mesilate inhibits various enzyme systems, such as coagulation and fibrinolytic systems (thrombin, Xa, and XIIa), the kallikrein–kinin system, the complement system, pancreatic proteases and activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Nafamostat inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production, apoptosis, and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in cultured human trophoblasts. It is shown to act as an antioxidant in TNF-α-induced ROS production.
Nafamostat is mainly hydrolyzed by hepatic carboxyesterase and long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase in human liver cytosol. Main metabolites are p-guanidinobenzoic acid (PGBA) and 6-amidino-2-naphthol (AN) as inactive protease inhibitors.
Route of elimination
Two metabolites of NM, p-guanidinobenzoic acid (PGBA) and 6-amidino-2-naphthol (AN), are renally excreted. Nafamostat accumulates in the kidneys.
Reported incidences of agranulocytosis, hyperkalemia, and anaphylaxis. The use of nafamostat has been reported to cause cardiac arrest in patients receiving dialysis due to a sudden change in the patient's condition such as dyspnea. A study suggests that the drug and its metabolites may inhibit the amiloride-sensitive sodium (Na) conductance at the collecting ducts, resulting in an inhibition of K secretion and hyperkalemia. Reported LD50 value from intravenous administration in rats is 16.4mg/kg.
Store in a dry, well-ventilated place away from direct sunlight.